Cultural Practices Program

Bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave Black History Education Conference

Bringing the gifts that my ancestors gave, I am the dream and the hope of the slave I rise, i rise, i rise ~Maya Angelou~

Cultural Practices That Are Relevent, LLC

Carolyn Stanford Taylor Wisconsin State Superintendant

Andreal Davis

Andreal Davis is a wife, mother, grandmother, daughter, sister, aunt and Statewide Culturally Responsive Practices Coordinator in Wisconsin. She received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Elementary Education in 1986 and a Master of Science Degree in Curriculum and Instruction in 1995 from the University of Wisconsin- Madison. She also holds a certificate in Educational Administration from Edgewood College in Madison, Wisconsin. Convinced of the importance of family and community in a child’s education, Davis has been instrumental in forming family-school-community relationships ever since she began her teaching in 1986.

ABOUT THE ORGANIZER

She has served in various capacities in the public education arena including but not limited to an Elementary Educator, Title I Reading Instructor, Parent Involvement Coordinator, Instructional Resource Teacher for Cultural Relevance, Assistant Director of Equity and Family Involvement and the nation’s first Director of African American Student Achievement with the Madison Metropolitan School District in Madison, Wisconsin. She was formerly co-director, along with her husband Arlington, of the African American Ethnic Academy, an academic and cultural enrichment program that convened on Saturday mornings. As a product of the research she did while serving as co-director at the African American Ethnic Academy she was propelled by her own three sons and countless other under-served children across the country and devoted her life’s work to researching best practices and models around Culturally Responsive Practices that speak to the unique identities and world views of these children. Reflecting on her own educational experiences as a child and those she has had as a classroom teacher and mother, she has held deeply in her heart the people, purposes and passions that shaped and have had a profound effect on the educational leader she is today. Many of these experiences remain in her institutional memory and call her to create and share this work through publishing books, developing curriculum and consulting work across the nation. Included in this repertoire of tools and resources are a professional development model called Cultural Practices that are Relevant (CPR) that supports and strengthens Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching. Most recently she has published her first culturally responsive children’s book called, “Dreaming In Ethnic Melodies” that shares the hopes and dreams she has held for her own

three sons. She currently serves as Wisconsin’s Culturally Responsive Practices Coordinator at the Wisconsin Response to Intervention Center. In that role she leads this work along with a team of colleagues, training practitioners across the state of Wisconsin and nationally from a model she co- created called the Model to Inform Culturally Responsive Practices that focuses on what it means to be culturally responsive starting with self and moving that work across an entire equitable multi-level system of support. As a result of this work Andreal has received various awards. She was the recipient of the NBC 15 News Crystal Apple Award in 2000, UW-Madison Lois Gadd Nemec Distinguished Elementary Education Alumni Award in 2004, Order of the Eastern Star Mother Full of Grace in 2004, the Milken National Educator Award in 2004 and the YWCA woman of Distinction Award in

The Cultural Practices That Are Relevant is an organic professional and personal development process that includes participating in one of 6 strands of focused study of culturally relevant practices through 7 interconnected experiences that include book studies, articles, community site visits, school visits, conferences/workshops, guest speakers and coaching/modeling. The goal is for the practitioner to have exposure to and connect the experiences in a personal and professional manner to gain a deeper understanding of Cultural Practices That Are Relevant and the impact of these practices on their work. What is 1 way I and my practices will be impacted by the CPR 7 Experiences? Utilizing culturally responsive practices is an “approach” that demonstrates you have the self-awareness to recognize how you— because of your ethnicity, your culture, and your life experiences may affect others, as well as what you offer to others. Being culturally responsive allows you to use “teachable moments” to share yourself and learn from others (Nuri Robins, 2002) Through the use of culturally responsive practices practitioners can effect policies and practices of a school/district or the values and behaviors that enable his/her self or school to interact effectively in a culturally diverse environment (Lindsey, 2003, Davis 2007). A culturally responsive practitioner possesses and works to build on his/her contextualized knowledge of culture, community, and identity of children and families as the core of his/her teaching practice. Culturally responsive practitioners possess a "multicultural competence" that incorporates a deep and sophisticated understanding of race and culture the contemporary contexts of schooling (Murrel ). STEP 1 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant (CPR) Journey STEP 2 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant (CPR) Journey STEP 3 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant (CPR) Journey The Launch of The Cultural Practices That Are Relevant (CPR) 7 Experiences Professional Development Model STEP 4 on my own Cultural Practices that are Relevant Journey STEP 5 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant Journey Implementing the CPR 7 Experiences Professional Development Model at the 4 Pilot Schools Over a 5 Year Period collecting Data on Student STEP 6 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant Journey Implementing the CPR 7 Experiences Professional Development Model at the 4 Pilot Schools Over a 5 Year Period collecting Data on Student Achievement and Practitioner Beliefs, Knowledge and Practices CONFERENCES STEP 7 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant Journey Implementing the CPR 7 Experiences Professional Development Model at the 4 Pilot Schools Over a 5 Year Period collecting Data on Student Achievement and Practitioner Beliefs, Knowledge and Practices SCHOOL SITE VISITS STEP 8 on my own Cultural Practices That Are Relevant Journey Implementing the CPR 7 Experiences Professional Development Model at the 4 Pilot Schools Over a 5 Year Period collecting Data on Student Defining the Cultural Practices that are Relevant (CPR) 7 Experiences Professional Development Model Creation and Steps Towards Breathing New Life Into our Instructional Practices By Andreal Davis Achievement and Practitioner Beliefs, Knowledge and Practice BOOK STUDY

Achievement and Practitioner Beliefs, Knowledge and Practices COMMUNITY SITE VISIT

Bringing The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave: Black History Education Conference

Preconference Madison Concourse Hotel Friday, February 15, 2019

Early registration, vendors, sponsors, hospitality suite-1:00-2:00p.m.

Preconference session 2:00-4:30p.m. Welcome-Andreal Davis History of Black Education-Andreal Davis

Reflections on the African American Ethnic Academy-Dr. Carl Whiting

Cultural Practices That Are Relevant 7 Experiences-Andreal Davis

Impacts of the work at the African American Ethnic Academy-Ryan Vernosh

Maxwell Elementary-St. Paul Minnesota Freedom Summer Exhibit and action planning

Bringing The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave: Black History Education Conference Welcome Reception Friday, February 15, 2019

Madison Concourse Hotel 5:00p.m.-8:00p.m. Mistress of Ceremony-Nichelle Nichols

~Social/horderves

~Read The Welcome From State Superintendent Carolyn Stanford Taylor

~Black Made That

~Family Reunion

~MTRANE Music, Limanya Drum and Dance Ensemble, Frances Huntley Cooper

~MTRANE Music, Cake Walk Dance, Marilyn Ruffin ~MTRANE Music, Stepping/Stepping Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.

~MTRANE, Hip Hop Dance, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc.

~Dance

Bringing The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave: Black History Education Conference Welcome Reception Panel of Firsts

Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. First Greek Lettered Sorority Established By African American College Women Nichelle Nichols

Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. First African American Intercollegiate Greek Lettered Fraternity Walter Williams

Carolyn Stanford Taylor First African American Female Wisconsin State Superintendent

Frances Huntley Cooper Wisconsin’s First And Only African American Mayor Of Fitchburg

Marilyn Ruffin-First African American Elected Member Of The Sun Prairie School Board

Bringing The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave: Black History Education Conference Opening Ceremony Edgewood College

Saturday, February 16, 2019 8:45-10:00a.m. Emcee Dr. Edward Holmes Drum Call-Yorel Lashley Sponsor VIP, Family March In

Permission FromThe Elders To Speak-Dr. Mahalia Hines Welcome- The Shoulders We Stand On Sponsor Recognition Dane County Executive Joe Parisi - Proclimation Lift Every Voice and Sing Video Colier McNair Gospel Choir Dr. Gloria Ladson-Billings Keynote-Listening to Mama, ‘nem: The Role of Elders in the Sankofa Journey REL/Magra 22 Interventions

Edgewood College Presentation Closing/ Transition To Sessions

Ubuntu

I am Because We Are

Lift Every Voice And Sing BY JAMES WELDON JOHNSON

Lift every voice and sing, Till earth and heaven ring, Ring with the harmonies of Liberty, Let our rejoicing rise High as the list’ning skies, Let it resound loud as the rolling sea.

Sing a song full of the faith that the dark past has taught us Sing a song full of the hope that the present has brought us Facing the rising sun of our new day begun, Let us march on till victory is won. Stony the road we trod Bitter the chast’ning rod, Felt in the days when hope unborn had died; Yet with a steady beat Have not our weary feet Come to the place for which our fathers sighed? We have come over a way that with tears has been watered We have come, treading our path thro’ the blood of the slaughtered, Out from the gloomy past, till now we stand at last Where the white gleam of our bright star is cast. God of our weary years, God of our silent tears, Thou who hast brought us thus far on the way; Thou who hast by Thy might, Led us into the light, Keep us forever in the path, we pray. Lest our feet stray from the places, our God, where we meet Thee, Lest our hearts, drunk with the wine of the world we forget Thee; Shadowed beneath Thy hand, may we forever stand, True to our God, true to our native land.

Bringing The Gifts That My Ancestors Gave:

Black History Education Conference 2019 Conference Planning Committee

Teresa Baymon Taneah Braxton Allan Chancellor Emily Pease Clem Ari Davis Armani B. Davis Katharine Goray Sean Gray Patricia Greeley Arilynn Harris Arlington W. Davis III Arlington W. Davis IV Jacqueline Jones Tanika Kromah Janice Lee Beth Lehman Kayleigh Lundh John Milton Corinda Rainey Moore Lenwood O’Neal Alex Thompson Black Student Union Jacque Wesley Dawneen Williams Kate Higley Dena Jenks Andrea Jones

Policy at the state level District Assistance and Intervention Teams To assist school districts that failed to meet their adequate yearly progress goals for four or more consecutive years, California implemented a two-tiered system of technical assistance. One tier involved districts with the lowest performing schools according to the most recent accountability tests, and these districts were determined to be most in need of moderate or intensive assistance. These districts received $100,000 to $150,000 per underperforming school to contract for two years with highly regulated, state-approved external experts known as district assistance and intervention teams (DAITs). DAITs worked closely with district leaders to assess district needs in nine essential program components and develop a capacity report that summarized the needs in the nine components. DAIT staff then worked with districts to write an improvement plan based on the recommendations from the capacity report. Then DAITs staff provided the districts with the human capital (that is, the knowledge of reforms and social ties to other organizations) to help leverage the reforms enumerated in the district’s improvement plan. The other tier was for districts that failed to meet adequate yearly progress goals for four or more years but performed better according to the most recent accountability tests. These districts were determined to need less intensive technical assistance. Such districts received $50,000 per underperforming school to contract with more traditional, less regulated technical assistance providers of their choosing. These non-DAIT technical assistance providers often addressed narrower, district-identified issues.

To explore the relationship between DAITs and student achievement, researchers used data from all California public school students in grades 2–11 from 2005/06 to 2010/11 for whom either ELA or math test data were available, resulting in 26.3 million student-year observations for the full sample (Strunk & McEachin, 2014). The researchers then employed a difference-in-difference approach to compare students in DAIT districts to students in non-DAIT districts before and after intervention. After controlling for school; district; time; student prior achievement; race; and English learner, free or reduced-price lunch, and disability status, analyses indicated that DAIT technical assistance was associated with positive increases in math achievement for Black students, relative to White students. This study was classified as offering promising evidence because it was a correlational study with statistical controls for other student and district factors.

Local district policies Hiring certified teachers

Two studies used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) to determine whether teachers’ certification status was associated with Black students’ reading achievement in grades K–3 (Easton-Brooks & Davis, 2009; Graves, 2011). These studies had different requirements for inclusion in the analytic sample, and the analyses included different sets of student, family, and teacher characteristics as control variables. Both studies found that Black students whose teachers held a “standard certificate” (defined as having a full certificate or an advanced certificate) showed significantly more reading growth

between kindergarten and grade 3 than Black students whose teachers did not hold a standard certificate (defined as holding no certificate, holding a probationary certificate, or holding a certificate issued through an alternative program; Easton-Brooks & Davis, 2009; Graves, 2011). The evidence from these two studies was classified as promising because of each study’s correlational design with statistical controls for student characteristics.

Policies and practices in the school community The Elementary School Success Profile Model of Assessment and Prevention

Rather than being a specific intervention itself, the Elementary School Success Profile Model of Assessment and Prevention (ESSP MAP) is a tool that collects and organizes data to aid school administrators in better understanding the circumstances and needs of their students. Using data collected from online assessments administered to teachers, parents, and students, ESSP MAP creates online profiles of social environments and self-perceptions of students at the school, group, and individual levels. Online materials help schools interpret and use the profiles to establish tiered systems of supports (specific interventions) and identify students in need of those interventions. A study examined the association between ESSP MAP use and student reading achievement for 10 cohorts of grade 3 students and 1 cohort of grade 4 students through their grade 5 year for one North Carolina district (Bowen, Thompson, & Powers, 2012). Teachers and school staff for two of these cohorts (grade 3 students in 3 schools and grade 4 students in another school, totaling approximately 830 students) were provided with ESSP MAP data and received training on how to use the data. Eleven other cohorts of grade 3 students in six schools (approximately 7,900 students) served as a comparison group. The reading proficiency trajectories of the two cohorts of students whose teachers were trained to use ESSP MAP data were compared to the reading proficiency trajectories of the other 11 cohorts of students. The results show that Black students in the cohorts

exposed to the ESSP MAP intervention experienced greater annual percentage-point gains in reading proficiency rates compared to Black students in the comparison cohorts (Bowen et al., 2012). Even though the study used a quasi-experimental design (QED), it was classified as providing promising evidence because it did not show that the groups were equivalent at baseline but controlled for selection factors statistically.

Policies and practices in the school community Good Behavior Game with enhanced academic curriculum

The Good Behavior Game with enhanced academic curriculum is a classroom-centered intervention that aims to address aggressive behavior and poor academic achievement (Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969). The Good Behavior Game involves assigning students into teams. To “win,” teams cannot exceed a certain threshold of disruptive behaviors. The intervention also involves curricular enhancements such as interactive read-alouds, journal writing activities, and directed thinking activities. Teachers receive 60 hours of training and direct supervision of classroom implementation. The longitudinal associations between the Good Behavior Game/ enhanced academic curriculum and student achievement in ELA and math and high school graduation were tested with a randomized controlled trial (RCT; Bradshaw, Zmuda, Kellam, &

Ialongo, 2009). Twenty-seven first-grade classrooms were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the Good Behavior Game/enhanced curriculum intervention, the Family School Partnership intervention, or a no- intervention comparison condition. The sample had 653 grade 1 students in 27 classrooms in nine schools in a single district. Black students made up 87 percent of the sample. All students were tracked through age 19. The results showed statistically significant positive associations between the Good Behavior Game/enhanced curriculum on students’ grade 12 test scores and high school graduation. This study did not meet WWC standards without reservations because insufficient information about student attrition was provided. Nor did it meet WWC standards with reservations because no information was provided about the groups of students at baseline. Thus, the associations demonstrated within the study cannot be considered causal, and the findings cannot be classified as providing strong or moderate evidence. The analyses did control for other selection factors, and, therefore, the study findings were classified as providing promising evidence (Bradshaw et al., 2009).

Policies and practices in the school community Mentoring

The Benjamin E. Mays (BEMI) Institute is a mentoring program for Black male students who are identified as at risk for performing poorly in school. BEMI participants attend classes with Black male peers and are taught by Black male teachers. Each BEMI participant is expected to meet frequently with a local Black business or community leader (that is, a mentor) who introduces the participant to the benefits of his profession. Then, each week, one of these mentors is invited to discuss his area of expertise with the entire class. Students enroll in the program at the beginning of grade 7, and the intervention includes two years of daily, all-male classroom instruction; weekly meetings with mentors; and monthly meetings among parents, students, and mentors (Gordon, Iwamoto, Ward, Potts, & Boyd, 2009).

One study of this program examined BEMI participants’ grade 8 scores in math and reading on the Connecticut Mastery Test. The analytic sample size included 61 students in one school, including 29 BEMI program students and 32 comparison students with similar backgrounds. The analysis controlled for students’ math achievement scores from grade 6, and the results showed that BEMI students scored significantly higher than non- BEMI students on grade 8 math achievement tests (Gordon et al., 2009). Because the study showed a statistically significant positive association with math achievement after controlling for student’s prior achievement, the evidence was classified as promising.

Policies and practices in the school community Parental involvement

PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AT HOME. One analytic study used data from the ECLS-K to explore whether student, family, and school-related factors were associated with gaps in literacy achievement for 2,296 students in kindergarten and grade 1 (356 of whom were Black; Chatterji, 2006). The analyses included two measures of parental involvement: the average amount of time that parents spent reading to their child per week, and the extent to which parents assisted their child with schoolwork at home. The researcher used a statistical model that controlled for various student and school factors, including prior reading achievement. The results for Black students indicated a statistically significant positive association between the amount of time that parents read to their child and students’ achievement in reading (Chatterji, 2006). This study used correlational methods while statistically controlling for selection factors. Accordingly, the evidence from the study was classified as promising. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AT SCHOOL. Researchers used data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) to identify factors that predict standardized test scores in math for Black students in grade 12 (Carpenter, Ramirez, & Severn, 2006). Data came from a representative sample of 15,618 students who were in grade 12 in 1992. Of these, 1,660 students were Black. The analysis included teachers’ perceptions of each student’s parental involvement. The results indicated a statistically significant positive association between the involvement of Black students’ parents in the school and the students’ math achievement in grade 12. A similar association was evident for White students (Carpenter et al., 2006). This correlational study provides promising evidence of an association between parental involvement and Black students’ achievement.

Another analysis of the NELS:88 data examined students’ likelihood of dropping out of high school (Carpenter & Ramirez, 2007). The sample for this analysis included 17,613 students, 2,010 of whom were Black. Analyses controlled for student and school factors, including students’ prior achievement test scores. The results of the analysis indicated a statistically significant negative association between the involvement of Black students’ parents in the school and the likelihood of those students dropping out of high school. The results from this correlational analysis also provide promising evidence supporting an association between the involvement of Black students’ parents in the school and the achievement of those students.

Policies and practices in the school community Positive Action: Social-emotional and character development program

Positive Action (PA) is a social-emotional and character development program based on self-concept and social- ecological theories. These theories suggest that positive thinking and action lead to fewer negative behaviors, higher academic motivation, and higher academic achievement. The PA core curriculum contains six units, taught four days per week in 15- to 20-minute lessons for grades K–6 and two days per week in 20-minute lessons for grades 7 and 8. The units focus on self-concept, positive actions focusing on oneself, positive social-emotional actions focusing on others, and continual self- improvement. The program also includes training and climate development for teachers, counselors, families, communities, and schools.

The association between PA and Black students’ reading and math achievement was studied using a cluster RCT with multiple cohorts of students tracked for five years (Bavarian et al., 2013). Data from 1,170 students and 14 schools were included in the analyses. The association between PA and students’ academic achievement was analyzed using a statistical model that controlled for students’ test scores in prior years. PA was positively and significantly associated with standardized reading scores for Black male students. No positive and statistically significant associations were found for other ethnic groups or subject areas (Bavarian et al., 2013). This study was classified as providing promising evidence because of the high attrition rate and the lack of information about students’ baseline equivalence.

Policies and practices in the school community Student Success Skills

The Student Success Skills (SSS) program involves professional development and coaching for school counselors to lead classroom lessons focused on cognitive, social, and self- management skills. School counselors are trained and coached to implement the program. Counselors lead eight 45-minute lessons in classrooms during the fall and another four refresher sessions in the late winter/spring. The sessions focus on teaching 16 tools related to cognitive, social, and self-management skills. At the beginning and end of each session, students discuss their progress on their personal goals and share how they are applying their new skills to academics. Students receive additional practice and support if needed. Two RCTs and two QEDs examined the impact of the program on student achievement, but none of these studies analyzed the achievement outcomes of Black and White students separately (Brigman & Campbell, 2003; Brigman, Webb, & Campbell, 2007; Campbell & Brigman, 2005; Webb, Brigman, & Campbell, 2005). The data from the four studies were reanalyzed to determine the association between student participation in SSS and math and reading scores for different racial/ethnic subgroups (Miranda,

Webb, Brigman, & Peluso, 2007). The combined sample involved 1,123 students (279 of whom were Black) in grades 5, 6, 8, and 9 in two districts. Students’ scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test in math and reading at baseline (the April before the study) and after the study was implemented were analyzed to determine program impact, and the analytic model controlled for students’ baseline scores. The researchers found that students exposed to the SSS program outperformed their nonparticipating counterparts in ELA and math, and the improvements of Black students were similar to those of White students (Miranda et al., 2007). Even though this study was based on data from RCTs and QEDs, insufficient attrition and baseline information was provided for these primary studies (or the reanalysis) to meet WWC standards. The reanalysis was classified as providing promising evidence because it found statistically significant positive associations for Black students after controlling for students’ baseline achievement.

Teacher practices in the classroom Development of teacher-student relationships

assessments: Curriculum Based Measurement: Oral Reading Fluency (Deno, 1986) and Letter-Naming Fluency from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (Kaminski & Good, 2002). Analyses also controlled for other selection factors. None of the relationship variables was associated with students’ oral reading fluency, but psychological proximity seeking was positively associated with letter-naming fluency. This study used a correlational design with statistical controls, thus resulting in a classification as promising evidence.

A study was conducted to examine the associations between teacher–student relationships and student behavioral and academic achievement outcomes. Forty-four Black students in grades K–6 who were at risk of being referred to special education for behavior problems completed a survey instrument that assessed their relationship with their teacher in terms of their desire to be psychologically closer to their teacher (referred to as psychological proximity seeking) and the emotional quality of the relationship (Decker, Dona, & Christenson, 2007). The 25 teachers of these 44 students also recorded their perceived relationships with the students. The researchers developed analytic models that examined the associations between the quality of the teacher- student relationship and students’ performance on two literacy

Teacher practices in the classroom Formative assessment

Formative assessments are used to monitor student learning to adapt classroom instruction (Sadler, 1998). One correlational study examined the association between students’ responses to nine survey items about their teacher’s use of formative assessment and the students’ reading achievement. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 5,233 15-year-old students (635 of whom were Black) who participated in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA; Li, 2016). The study found statistically significant positive associations between teachers’ use of formative assessment and students’ scores on the PISA reading test, even after controlling for student- and school-level socioeconomic status. The associations were stronger for Black students than for White or Hispanic students (Li, 2016). The evidence from this study was classified as promising because the study was correlational and controlled for selection bias.

Teacher practices in the classroom Grade-specific instructional focus in math

KINDERGARTEN: INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS ON TELLING TIME, AND ESTIMATING QUANTITIES AND COIN VALUES. Researchers have explored national datasets to see whether certain instructional practices are associated with students’ academic achievement. In one study, ECLS-K data from students from low-income families were used to determine whether the opportunity to learn math in school and teachers’ self-reported emphasis on particular math topics was associated with these students’ scores on the ECLS-K end-of-year assessment in math (Wang, 2010). The sample consisted of 1,272 students (643 Black students and 629 White students) and their teachers. Analytic models controlled for students’ prekindergarten math skills, whether they attended full-day or half-day kindergarten, and other student factors. The findings showed that teachers’ reported emphasis on accurately telling time and estimating quantities and coin values was associated with higher math achievement for both Black and White children from low-income families (Wang, 2010). The findings from this study were classified as promising evidence because the study used a correlational design with statistical controls.

GRADE 4: INSTRUCTIONAL FOCUS ON MEASUREMENT AND ESTIMATION. Another study examined survey and math assessment data from a representative sample of 13,511 grade 4 students who participated in the NAEP. The survey data included responses to questions about 20 instructional practices, and analyses examined whether any of those practices were associated with reductions in the Black-White achievement gap, after controlling for other student-related factors (Wenglinsky, 2004a). The findings revealed only one practice—teacher emphasis on measurement and estimation— was associated with a decrease in the achievement gap on the math portion of the NAEP (Wenglinsky, 2004a). Additional caution is warranted in interpreting this statistical association because the study did not explicitly describe the separate trends that can constitute the achievement gap (that is, it could be a reduction in the achievement of White students, rather than improvement in achievement among Black students). Because this study used a correlational design with statistical controls for other student factors, the findings were classified as promising evidence.

Teacher practices in the classroom High expectations

A study was conducted to determine whether Black students whose math teachers communicate high expectations show higher math achievement (Woolley, Strutchens, Gilbert, & Martin, 2010). The study sample included 933 Black students in grades 6–8 from 13 schools in seven districts. Students completed a survey that included items about their math teachers’ communication of expectations. High expectations were defined as the aggregation of students’ responses to five survey items about the degree to which their teacher expressed confidence that students can learn mathematical concepts. The students also completed the SAT-10 math assessment. The researchers’ analyses controlled for student motivation, amount of studying, and math anxiety. The findings indicated that Black students whose teachers communicated high expectations had higher SAT-10 math scores (Woolley et al., 2010). This correlational study also serves as promising evidence for setting high expectations.

Teacher practices in the classroom Homework

Evidence on the association between homework and Black students’ achievement also comes from the previously mentioned analysis of NELS:88 data (see the description of the study supporting parental involvement at school; Carpenter et al., 2006). That same analysis included students’ responses to survey questions on the amount of homework completed per week. A correlational analysis that controlled for various student characteristics examined the association between homework and grade 12 students’ achievement on the NELS:88 math test. For Black and White students alike, the results indicated positive associations between time spent on homework and standardized test scores in math (Carpenter et al., 2006). The evidence supporting this association was classified as promising because it comes from a correlational study that controlled for selection factors statistically.

Teacher practices in the classroom Instructional reform practice in math

The correlational study that provided evidence on teachers’ high expectations also examined whether teachers’ instructional reform practices in math were related to students’ math achievement (Woolley et al., 2010). The sample was the same as that described previously for the homework intervention. The survey that students completed also included items about their math teachers’ use of specific instructional reform practices (defined as practices requiring students to explain their reasoning and perform sustained work on challenging tasks). The results indicated that teachers’ use of reform practices was significantly associated with the SAT-10 math scores of Black students (Woolley et al., 2010). The findings from this correlational study were classified as providing promising evidence.

Teacher practices in the classroom Time on task in math

Another study used data from the ECLS-K to determine whether the characteristics of teachers and teachers’ instructional practices were associated with kindergarten and grade 1 students’ performance on the ECLS-K math assessment (Desimone & Long, 2010). Analyses involved data from 10,980 kindergarten and grade 1 students, 661 of whom were Black. Analytic models controlled for the initial assignment of students to teachers and other student-level factors. The findings showed that time on task in math (teachers’ reported amount of time conducting instruction in math) was significantly positively associated with math achievement for Black students in grade 1 but not associated with math achievement for White students. For kindergarten students, time on task was unrelated to math achievement for both Black and White students (Desimone & Long, 2010). This finding offers promising evidence that time on task for math is positively associated with the math performance of Black students in grade 1.

NAEP data from a nationally representative sample of 15,693 grade 8 students also were used to examine the association between math instructional practices and the Black-White achievement gap in math (Wenglinsky, 2004b). After controlling for other student and teacher characteristics, the study found that time on task in math was associated with a reduction in the Black-White achievement gap (Wenglinsky, 2004b). Similar to the study that was conducted using NAEP data for grade 4 students (Wenglinsky, 2004a), the results from this study did not show whether the associations with the Black-White achievement gap reflect positive associations for Black students, negative associations for White students, or both. Caution is therefore warranted when interpreting these findings. This study also used a correlational design with statistical controls; thus, the findings from this study were classified as promising evidence.

Supplemental interventions Out-of-school-time programs

Out-of-school-time (OST) programs are defined as programs that occur outside regular school hours, including extracurricular activities and after-school programs, clubs, sports, and lessons. One study was identified that examined the association between participation in OST programs (that is, the number of hours participating in OST programs) and scores on college entrance examinations (that is, the ACT and SAT) for 2,363 Black scholarship applicants from single-parent homes (Nagle, 2013). On the scholarship form, students entered the total number of hours of OST participation from their junior year through the time they filled out the application (midway through their senior year), excluding summer activities. The average of students’ scores on

the ELA and math portions of the ACT and SAT served as the achievement measure. The analyses controlled for parents’ education level and students’ grade point average. The regression results showed that Black students’ participation in OST programs was positively associated with their college entrance examination scores (Nagle, 2013). This study was classified as providing promising evidence because it was a correlational study with statistical controls for parents’ education level and students’ grade point average.

Supplemental interventions Summer reading program with free books

A summer reading program targeted students in grade 4 and had two components. First, teachers participated in two- hour training sessions on how to teach specific reading strategies and how to encourage students to read at home. Teachers then led these reading lessons with their students and provided encouragement during the last month of the school year. Second, students received eight books during July and August at no cost to them or their families.

In an experimental study, researchers examined whether students’ participation in the intervention was associated with higher scores on reading portion of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills the following fall (Kim, 2006). The study was conducted with 552 grade 4 students from 10 high-poverty, multiracial schools in one district, and 93 of those students were Black. Students were randomly assigned to participate or not participate in the intervention during the summer. The researchers estimated the effect of the intervention for different racial/ethnic groups separately, with each statistical model controlling for students’ reading achievement scores from the spring (before participation in the intervention). This study is likely to meet WWC standards without reservations, and for this particular sample, the data suggested that the intervention produced statistically significant improvements on Black students’ achievement in reading. However, no effects were found for other racial/ethnic groups (Kim, 2006). The comparisons between Black students who were assigned to the summer reading program and Black students who were assigned to the comparison condition did not meet the sample size or multiple-settings requirements needed for a strong evidence classification. However, because the analytic models in the study controlled for selection bias, this study was classified as providing promising evidence.

Supplemental interventions Participation in urban debate leagues

Urban debate leagues (UDLs) promote and organize interscholastic debates through partnerships with urban public school systems. Most UDLs are for high school students (grades 9–12), although some middle school leagues exist. In schools, debate is either embedded in an existing course or established as a distinct course. Through UDLs, universities are able to provide students with extra support, including mentoring opportunities. The skills needed to succeed in UDL competitions are aligned with the reading skills that students need at the secondary level: comprehension of complex texts, the ability to gather evidence from research, the ability to compare authors’ claims, and the ability to distill key arguments from text (ACT, 2006; Mezuk, 2009). Thus, participation in UDLs may help Black students strengthen their reading skills and show stronger ELA achievement.

A study compared the ACT verbal scores (ELA achievement), graduation rates, and dropout rates of 458 Black male UDL participants in grades 9–12 with those of 2,156 matched students (Mezuk, 2009). Statistical models controlled for students’ grade point averages and scores on the Illinois Standards Achievement Test in grade 8. The findings indicated that participation in a UDL was positively associated with the likelihood of scoring above the English and reading ACT benchmark scores and graduating from high school. Participation also was negatively associated with the likelihood of students dropping out of high school (Mezuk, 2009). This QED was classified as providing promising evidence because the two groups did not have equivalent achievement scores at baseline, but the baseline scores were statistically controlled.

Social identity threat is a social psychological theory that suggests that environmental cues that remind individuals that they are members of a marginalized group can lead those individuals to behave in a way that confirms the stereotypes of their group (Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2002). For example, according to the theory, when female students make up a minority in a math class, they may be reminded of the stereotype that females may not be as good in math as males, and they therefore perform accordingly. Social identity threat also may contribute to achievement gaps in schools in which White students outnumber Black students. The theory suggests that in such circumstances, Black students’ awareness of their minority status within the school may remind them of the stereotype that Black students do not perform as well academically as White students do, thus perhaps prompting them to behave in accordance with that stereotype. An intervention that prompts Black students to think about their personally important values (that is, stimulates self- affirming thoughts) may help reduce achievement gaps caused by social identity threat (Cohen, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughns, Apfel, & Brzustoski, 2009).

Supplemental interventions Self-affirmation

A study tested whether a self-affirmation intervention can improve Black students’ academic performance, especially in schools in which White students outnumber Black students (Hanselman, Bruch, Gamoran, & Borman, 2014). Eleven middle schools in Madison, Wisconsin, participated in the study, and 910 students in grade 7 (including 161 Black students) were randomly assigned to write about values that were important to them (self-affirmation condition) or write about values that were not important to them or about something procedural (comparison condition). In addition, the researchers distinguished between schools that presented a high-identity threat environment (that is, schools having a smaller ratio of Black to White and Asian students and a larger Black-White achievement gap during the previous school year) from those that presented a low-identity threat environment. The study found that in high-threat environments, Black students who responded to the self-affirmation writing prompts scored significantly higher on the language usage test from the Measures of Academic Progress, after controlling for other student and school characteristics. No statistically significant effects were found on Black students’ math or reading achievement, nor were any self-affirmation effects found for White students. Although this study was an RCT and would likely meet WWC standards (assuming low attrition of students over the course of the study), it was conducted at only one site. The findings were therefore classified as promising evidence.

Dr. Gloria Ladson-Billings Keynote Speaker:

MOTHER OF THE CULTURALLY RELEVANT TEACHING MOVEMENT

G loria Ladson-Billings is Professor Emerita and former Kellner Family Distinguished Professor in Urban Education. She was the 2005- 2006 president of the American Educational Research Association. She is currently the President- Elect of the National Academy of Education. Ladson-Billings’ research examines the pedagogical practices of teachers who are successful with African American students. She also investigates Critical Race Theory applications to education.

Dr. Ladson-Billings is the author of the critically acclaimed books, The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children, Crossing over to Canaan: The Journey of New Teachers in Diverse Classrooms, and Beyond the Big House: African American Educators on Teacher Education. She is editor of 6 other books and author of more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. She is the former editor of the American Educational Research Journal and a member of several editorial boards.

Her work has won numerous scholarly awards including the H.I. Romnes Faculty Fellowship, the NAEd/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship, and the Palmer O. Johnson outstanding research award. During the 2003-2004 academic year, she was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. In fall of 2004, she received the George and Louise Spindler Award from the Council on Anthropology and Education for significant and ongoing contributions to the field of educational anthropology. She holds honorary degrees from Umeå University (Umeå Sweden), University of Massachusetts- Lowell, the University of Alicante (Alicante, Spain), the Erickson Institute (Chicago), and Morgan State University (Baltimore). She is a 2018 recipient of the AERA Distinguished Research Award, and she was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2018.

Dr. Mahalia Hines Very Special Guest:

Dr. Mahalia Hines was appointed to the Chicago Board of Education in May of 2011 by Mayor Rahm Emanuel. She is currently the President of the COMMON Ground Foundation and a former Member of the Board of Directors for the Obama Foundation. Dr. Hines has worked in the educational field for more than 35 years as a teacher and principal. During her 15 year tenure as a principal, she serviced grade levels from elementary through high school in the Chicago area. Dr. Hines has worked as a coach for first-year principals, a mentor for current principals and prospective principals in Chicago and other parts of the country. Dr. Hines continues to work with school leaders of public and charter schools in urban areas throughout the country in order to develop effective school leaders who will guide others to provide the best possible education for the children least likely to receive it. In addition to working with schools and school leaders, she travels the country speaking to single mothers on raising successful sons. Dr. Hines received her doctorate from the University of Illinois, Masters from Northeastern University and bachelor’s degree from Central State University.

One of her proudest accomplishments is being the mother of recording artist and actor, Lonnie “Rashid” Lynn-- better known to the public as Common.

MOTHER OF THE GRAMMY & ACADEMY AWARD WINNING ARTIST, “COMMON”

Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. Founded on Wednesday January 15, 1908 on the campus of Howard University in Washington D.C., Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated ® is the first Greek Letter Organization to be established and nationally incorporated by college-trained African American women.

Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. Gamma Gamma Gamma Chapter of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc

The Gamma Gamma Gamma Chapter of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. is a graduate chapter founded in Madison, WI. We have been serving the community since 1984. The Madison Omegas are committed to youth & education based programs in our community.

Attorney Richard L. Jones, Sr. JD Attorney Richard L. Jones is a native of Racine, WI, where he graduated from Wash- ington Park High School. He earned a B.A. in Economics and Management from Beloit College in 1986, a Juris Doctorate from the Marquette University Law School in 1989 and a Masters of Divinity from the Northern Baptist Seminary in June of 2013. While at Be- loit College, Attorney Jones served as the Vice President of the Minority Awareness and Concerns Club and earned Deans List honors in addition to earning numerous varsity letters in basketball and track. Michelle Belnavis Michelle Belnavis graduated from the University of Wisconsin, Madison with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Elementary Education and a Master of Science degree in Curricu- lum and Instruction. She is the proud mother of her two sons, college student, Darian and high school student, Izzy. She is a passionate educator for the Wisconsin RtI Center, inspired by the strong foundational work of Andreal Davis. Dr. Lamont A. Francies has been a senior pastor since 2003. He is the husband of Tiffany J. Francies (12 years), and they are the proud father and mother of 5 children. Dr. Francies was born and raised in San Francisco. He has preached throughout the state of California, nationwide and internationally and has been the senior minister of the Delta Bay Church of Christ in Antioch California since 2007.

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